## Waves in Dark Matter |

The following article appears in the *Journal of
Gravitational Physiology* for 1999. It represents a paper given
June 7, 1999 in Orlando, Florida.

O.E. WAGNER

Wagner Research Laboratory

Rogue River, OR 97537

**INTRODUCTION**

In 1988 I discovered low velocity longitudinal waves in plants.
These waves are called W-waves because they were first found by
probing freshly cut live wood. The initial velocity for these waves
was found to be close to 1 m/s. These waves don't appear to be
explicitly electromagnetic but in live materials they shift charge
because charge is free to move. These waves usually appear as standing
waves so that with multiple probes or probing one can often find
evidence for a standing wave in plant materials with charge located in
periodically spaced piles. It appears likely that standing waves are
largely responsible for the placement of structures such as branches
or leaves. The standing waves also appear to have an important
influence on determining the size and shape of cells and shorter
wavelengths are hypothesized to be important in determining cell
structure. It is the author's opinion that W-waves are just a
macroscopic extension of quantum waves (which determine the structure
of matter) with a continuous connection with the microscopic. The
waves are also found outside of plants traveling with much larger
velocities (v), however. W-waves appear to have many unique
frequencies (f). These frequencies can be measured electronically, by
beating with weak electromagnetic signals, and directly with a low
frequency spectrum analyzer. One can also measure plant internodal
spacings (i) and use these measurements to calculate the same
characteristic plant frequencies using a previously measured wave
velocity. A frequency for a particular spacing is given by **f=v/2i.**
Characteristic plant frequencies repeat from plant to plant^{1}.

For this paper the most important result is that W-waves
seem to be influenced tremendously by the gravitational field.
The velocity of these waves within a plant may be different
depending on whether they are traveling along the gravitational
field or perpendicular to it or anywhere in between. Also it
appears that the frequencies of the waves are shifted to lower
values when traveling along the gravitational field as compared
to traveling perpendicular to the gravitational field. Both effects
may complete the picture. Gravity has a very large influence on
frequencies appearing to reduce frequencies to lower values by
as much as a factor of one third (or even a smaller fraction) in
live plant material. This results in cell lengths and internodal
spacings being up to three (or even more) times longer parallel
to the gravitational field compared to perpendicular to the
gravitational field. Cell lengths and internodal spacings take on
intermediate values between vertical and horizontal. If the
gravitational field is missing or nearly so as with microgravity,
the cell is missing the gravity references that determine its
shape, for example. It appears that plant parts grow at discrete
angles to the gravitational field. All these features constitute
overwhelming proof that plants are wave operated with the
characteristics of the waves involved very much influenced by
the gravitational field.

**PLANT GROWTH AT DIFFERENT ANGLES TO THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD**

It was observed that certain branches on plants seem to
grow at the same angle, with respect to the horizontal, for
relatively long distances going away from a plant. Small tree
trunks often continue to grow at the same nonvertical angle for
long distances. In one instance I observed a three meter alder
branch with all its secondary branches perfectly level growing
away from the tree. These kind of observations led me to
measure angles that these straight growing branches make with
the horizontal. The graph below (Figure 1) is taken from
measurements of angles from big leaf maple trees (*Acer
macrophylla*) The data were taken in July when the trees were
growing with a complete complement of leaves to load the
branches for equilibrium results:

**Figure 1. **Angles of growth from big leaf maple trees. Several
other species of trees were measured with similar results^{2}.
These data seem to indicate that gravity is interacting in a
quantum like manner with waves operating the plant with a
preference for growth at integral multiples of near five degrees.

A comparison of spacings growing vertically and
horizontally also reveal how plants interact with gravity (**Table
1**). Notice how the ratios of means of reciprocals (converted to
frequency using 96 cm/s) (approx. 500 vertical and 500
horizontal each) of spacings compare:

__Species____M. reciprocal ratio____Species____M. reciprocal ratio__
(1)
7.10/4.81=1.48 (3/2)
(2)
27.99/16.83=1.66 (5/3)
(3)
39.34/29.54=1.33 (4/3)
(4)
28.99/21.68=1.33 (4/3)
(5)
28.35/22.71=1.25 (5/4)
(6)
45.76/29.32=1.56 (3/2)
(7)
3.25/1.09=2.98-(3/1)
(8)
57.68/39.01=1.48-(3/2)
(9)
15.93/9.38=1.70 (5/3)

**Table 1. **Ratios of the means of reciprocals (horizontal/vertical)
of internodal spacings taken from (1) B.L. Maple (2) Weeping
willow (*Salix *sp.) (3) False Indigo (*Amorpha fruiticosa*)
(4) Apple (*Pyrus Malus *sp.) (5) Weeping birch (*Betula
pendula*) (6) Golden chinkapin (*Castinopis chrysophylla*)
(7)Ponderosa Pine (*Pinus ponderosa*) (8) Hind's willow
(*Salix hindsiana*) (9) Red alder (*Alnus rubra*)

The ratios of the values obtained most often appear to be
ratios of small integers. At first I thought that these numbers
represented the ratios of velocities because I have measured
integral multiples of 96 cm/s in plants^{1}. This represents new
physics but it may not be new to quantum physics if the truth
were known. An alternative is that these ratios are ratios of
mean frequencies which was how they were calculated. It was
amazing how the ratios of means of reciprocals taken from
hundreds and thousands of spacings with large standard
deviations could produce such simple repeatable ratios. This
however is another characteristic of quantum waves. The
repeatable ratios seem to arise from ratios of means of
reciprocals of lengths so they seem to illustrate the algebraic
relationship given above (frequency equals velocity divided by
wavelength).

I next used chemical treatment to separate cells (tracheids,
vessel elements, or true fibers) from the xylem of various
species of trees. The cell lengths were then easy to measure
with a proper microscope. I measured thousands of these
lengths from samples growing at different angles to the
gravitational field (actually with respect to the horizontal which
is the complementary angle). These lengths were changed to
frequency using a velocity (v) of 96 cm/s and then averages
were taken of these frequencies (at least 300 for each case) .
**Table 2** shows the results from five different species together
with the angles for the specific samplings:

TABLE-2.MEAN-FREQUENCIES-VERSUS-ANGLE
(numbers in parenthesis represent a species. See caption)

0
^{o}5
^{o}45
^{o}65
^{o}75
^{o}80
^{o}85
^{o}90
^{o}
(1)
1110
820
551
431
(2)
1317
1007
877
775
(3)
936
876
829
(4)
642
493
420
(5)
503
358
195

TABLE 2. Mean frequencies derived from cell lengths (from
surface xylem) growing at the given angles to the horizontal.
The species are (1) Oregon ash (*Fraxinus latifolia*) (2) Pacific
madrone (*Arbutus menziesii*) (3) Black cottonwood (*Populus
trichocarpa*) (4) California black oak (*Quercus kellogii*)
(5) Incense cedar (*Libocedrus deccurens*).

One can plot almost a straight line in each case for angle
versus mean value. Again the frequency is shifted toward lower
values as the angle approaches 0 degrees with the gravitational
field. A linear relationship with angle seems to be found here
although it could be that the relationship is linear with the sine
of the angle in some cases. It would seem reasonable that the
mean of the reciprocals should change linearly with the sine of
the angle but the quantum nature of the observed angles may
change the relationship to linear with angle rather than with
sine of the angle as I would have predicted. Again the taking of
reciprocals seems to be necessary to obtain the linear
relationship again implying that waves are involved.

The plant seems to grow in tune with the waves altered by
the gravitational field. Anything that changes the plant part
angle with the gravitational field changes the response of the
plant. Thus hormones can be dispatched to encourage the
growth of reaction wood to produce a correction because the cell
and spacing dimensions no longer coincide with the
wavelengths of the waves that are present. In microgravity as in
orbit the plant has no gravity reference for cell shape (or
internodal spacings) so cells may even grow round that in
normal gravity are oblong^{3}. In the microgravity in a
spacecraft the gravitational field is essentially canceled because
of the centripetal field. It is interesting to observe that the two
fields seem to be equivalent to plant waves. This is true with the
principle of equivalence but to me this puts the idea of gravity
being a curvature of space phenomenon as Einstein assumed in
doubt. The study of a plants response to gravity may open up
new ways of looking at gravity.

The wave approach to the plant's response to gravity
provides both a means for the plant to detect gravity and a
means for the plant to respond to gravity. This has not generally
been true for the theories proposed up to this point.

**CONCLUSIONS**

The data indicate that plants are wave operated with the
gravitational responses strongly influenced by the gravity-wave
interactions. Perhaps the most dramatic demonstrations of the
wave hypothesis are the linear relations derived from using
reciprocals of the various length parameters found in plants.
Also the various direct and indirect measurements indicate the
same^{1}. The wave hypothesis needs to be investigated by
anyone working with plants and likely all life. The study of life
has so far been one of traditional methods mostly having their
origin in the previous two centuries. The wave theory appears to
tie many plant behavior aspects together into a unified theory
which includes the gravitational interactions. Plant
physiologists have been studying how a plant interacts with
gravity for the past 125 years or so with still an incomplete
understanding of the process. The wave approach, however,
seems to answer many of the questions about how a plant
interacts with gravity and how the plant implements this
interaction into plant growth.

**REFERENCES**

(1) Wagner, O. E. (1996) Anisotropy of wave velocities in
plants: gravitropism. *Physiol. Chem. Phys. & Med. NMR*
28:173-196.

(2) Wagner, O.E. (1997). Quantization of plant growth angles
with respect to gravity. *Physiol. Chem. Phys. & Med. NMR.*
29:63-69.

(3) Halstead, T.W. and F.R. Dutcher (1987). Plants in space.
*Ann. Revs. of Plant Physiol. *38: 317-345.

Copyright ©1996-2015 Orvin E. Wagner |

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