Waves in Dark Matter
The following feature article appeared in the Fall 1999 issue
of Frontier Perspectives. Frontier
Perspectives is published by the Center for Frontier Sciences at Temple
University. This article posted with permission from Frontier Perspectives. This is an important New Idea Article.
General relativity (GR) appears to be inadequate as a description
for gravity since it is at odds with quantum theory and fails to provide an
explanation for inertia and momentum. Other evidence that the space curvature
model for gravity (GR) is inadequate is also presented. The basics of a moving
standing wave model for gravity are described. The new model apparently provides
for the inadequacies of general relativity and may suggest means to control
and/or shield gravity.
General relativity (GR) (for definition see glossary) or gravity
described as a curvature of four dimensional space time has been the most popular
explanation for gravity for about 75 years. In fact the theory, since it was
developed by Albert Einstein, is usually accepted without question since no
one has supposedly developed a better theory. Unknown to most, however, GR is
unsatisfactory. For example it is not compatible with quantum theory (also called
wave mechanics) which describes the organization of matter. Elaborate mathematical
schemes have been developed to reconcile the two theories1. Perhaps
the most glaring incompatibility arises with relation to the cosmological constant.
The cosmological constant is usually associated with the energy of the vacuum.
This constant was invented by Einstein. It was later repudiated by him as his
biggest blunder after Hubble discovered that the Universe appeared to be expanding.
Subsequently it was dropped from cosmological theories. Quantum mechanical theory,
however, suggests the energy of the vacuum is large. Later discoveries suggest
that the cosmological constant is very large. With a large cosmological constant,
if GR holds, we could not see into the heavens more than a kilometer or so but
we can see indefinitely into the heavens 2,3. Physicists generally
have chosen to ignore the data assuming that there must be some unknown cancellations
that make the cosmological constant ineffective or negligible3. Other
theories of gravity have been proposed to take care of the problems but have
mostly been ignored 4.
Some may suggest "but GR has been proven"! Not necessarily!
One can easily find other explanations for the so called proofs of the GR. Unknown,
unseen, matter called dark matter has been found to exist from analysis of the
behavior of galaxies and other entities in the universe. Dark matter seems to
compose 90% or more of the universe. A disk like halo of dark matter around
the sun can explain the "added advance of the perihelion of the planet Mercury"5.
The deflection of light coming around the sun and gravitational lenses can be
explained as dark matter (including the vacuum) refraction of light instead
of a GR effect. A calculated value for the index of refraction of the medium,
that would provide for the observed deflection of light coming around the sun
would be n=1.00000076. The rapid loss of energy indicated by the
decaying orbits of binary pulsars, so far attributed to gravity wave radiation,
perhaps can be explained by the dense dark matter-vacuum medium absorbing kinetic
energy as the objects rush through it. Or perhaps one can say that dark matter
rushes through the moving highly dense objects which provide a large collision
cross section for kinetic energy absorption. The 1993 Nobel prize for physics
was awarded to Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse, for the discovery of orbiting
(binary) pulsars. It was hypothesized by these men that the energy loss indicated
by the observed decaying orbits was due to Einstein's gravitational wave radiation.
Other feasible mechanisms were not considered.
Einstein's space curvature waves have never been detected on
earth although many attempts have been made. The threshold level for detection
of Einstein's gravitational waves, here on earth, is constantly being pushed
to lower values because every attempt made to detect them so far has failed.
One of the many latest experimental attempts to find the waves that GR predicts
is designated LIGO supported by the National Science Foundation. Results from
this experiment are supposed to be out in the year 2001. Perhaps nature is attempting
to tell experimenters that space time curvature waves do not exist and GR does
EXPERIMENTS THAT SUGGEST A WAVE MODEL FOR GRAVITY
Plant physiologists have been working with plants near 150
years without coming up with a solution to how a plant interacts with gravity.
Many years ago this author concluded that there must be something fundamental
in a plant's interaction with gravity. For 20 years or so attempts were made
to find a satisfactory answer to the problem. In January 1988 strong evidence
was found that plants are operated by waves (called W-waves because they were
first found in wood) 7. W-waves were not only found in plants but
everywhere I checked outside of plants including the vacuum9. These
waves are generally low velocity longitudinal waves except in empty space. During
the last several years I associated these waves with plant structure, sap flow,
a plant's interaction with light, a plant's interaction with gravity and other
plant processes (see all the Wagner references). The velocities and/or frequencies
of the waves are different depending on what angle they are traveling with respect
to the gravitational field. This results in major differences in plant structure
in different directions with respect to the gravitational field. One might characterize
at least part of the effect as due to a larger and larger gravitational red
shift, or decrease in W-wave frequencies, as the plant part's angle decreases
with respect to the gravitational field 9,10. By using small accelerometers
in trees I found that plants reduce gravity to facilitate sap flow11.
Just as was hypothesized it was concluded that a plants interaction with gravity
is indeed a fundamental process. Since the waves interacted with both gravity
and charge within the plant it appears possible that W-waves and related fields
unify the forces of nature10. Perhaps the humble plant is not so
humble after all. The finding that plants interact with gravity in a fundamental
way suggested to this author that gravity is not a curvature of space phenomenon
but a wave phenomenon.
What kind of wave phenomenon could produce forces canceling
gravity to move sap up trees? Plant waves in most cases appear to come in the
form of standing waves. For an explanation of standing waves see elementary
physics texts and the glossary. In plants the standing W-waves displace charge
since charge is free to move and charge tends to clump at intervals along a
plant stem under the influence of W-wave standing waves.
In the laboratory one can produce moving and stationary standing
waves in ordinary florescent tubes12. These F-tube effects look like
they might also be due to W-waves. With the proper sound wave sources I am able
to continuously move a meter or so of dust along a special sound tube in either
direction or hold it stationary (unpublished results). These observations suggested
that a plant might facilitate sap flow by utilizing moving standing waves just
as one can move dust along a tube with sound waves. Using tiny accelerometers
one can measure gravity reductions of up to 22% in small holes in the sap conducting
tissue of trees11 indicating that the hypothesized forces are present.. These
reductions are likely just a small part of what one could see if one could be
within a cell making observations within live plant material.
The idea of moving standing waves exerting a forces on matter
is intriguing. Since there are major drawbacks to the curvature of space model
of gravity maybe gravity is just a superposition of moving standing waves produced
by presently undefined ultimate structures of matter. It appears that electrons
are composed of standing waves with a centralized source13. According
to a wave equation and a derived equation the sun seems to be a source of standing
waves that originally determined the initial locations of the planets and now
stabilizes the solar system13,14 Standing waves may just be a natural
consequence of traveling W-waves in the dark matter and/or vacuum medium. Moving
standing waves may not be that much of a step, in nature, away from ordinary
standing waves. Perhaps every ultimate particle of ordinary matter in the universe
produces a spherical standing wave which moves inward toward the particle creating
an attractive force on all other matter in the field of the moving standing
waves. Presently the ultimate structure is not defined. The waves produced have
such short wavelengths that they penetrate all ordinary matter.
To explain the lack of antimatter in the universe, I suggest
that the standing waves produced by the antimatter particle's ultimate structure
travel outward rather than inward thus repelling other antimatter and tending
to cancel the gravitational force produced by ordinary matter. Thus antimatter
didn't stay around in the early universe and very little of it has ever been
observed anywhere. Of course antimatter and matter particles also annihilate
one another to produce photons such as highly energetic gamma rays. Note that
in the wave theory a single particle of antimatter would apparently be attracted
by the earth's gravitational field. Whether there is gravitational attraction
or repulsion would depend on the relative masses of the volumes of interacting
matter and antimatter.
APPLICATIONS OF THE WAVE MODEL
If the standing wave model is a true picture for gravity then
the gravitational field is automatically unified with the other fields of nature.
The simplest theory that explains a phenomenon is most often the correct one
and I am convinced that the wave theory provides the requirements here. With
the wave theory Mach's principle can now can be referred to by stating that
the crossing gravity producing waves from all matter in the universe produce
a resisting force, proportional to mass, on any accelerating matter (F=ma).
This effect might be illustrated by the temporary slowing down of atoms and
other particles using crossed laser beams (Nobel prize for physics 1997).
When Einstein first invented GR he thought that it agreed well
with the ideas of Mach but later he did not think so15 . Mach's principle
states that the inertia of an object arises from the influence of all other
matter everywhere. If GR works, the addition of space curvatures from everywhere
in the universe would add to zero at any point except for mostly unbalanced
local influences. This suggests that inertia does not arise from space time
curvature. If gravity arises from waves, however, the superimposed waves would
still be present at any point in the universe and these waves could produce
The idea that waves produce gravity provides a simple explanation
for the usual quasars which so far are mostly unexplained. In the wave theory
sufficient compression of matter may interfere with the gravity producing mechanism.
Perhaps the gravitational field starts to collapse when enough matter (critical
or larger mass) collects in one place. The supermassive black hole involved
would then form a "gravitational reactor". Large amounts of energy would be
given off producing a quasar which may continue giving off huge amounts of energy
for many years. Finally the quasar collapses, with nearly complete temporary
distruction of the gravitational field with a resulting tremendous explosion.
The occurrence of such an explosion would likely be marked by a very energetic
g-ray burster. The result, it is hypothesized, is the eventual creation of another
galaxy or the large part of a galaxy. Perhaps the occurrence of quasars peaks
every 15 billion years (or so) a usually accepted age for the universe. Matter
initially is spread out but it tends to condense forming galaxies, stars, and
eventually condenses again into what are called black holes which again become
massive enough to produce a quasar and then matter recycles. This happens over
and over again in the universe perhaps with a period with a certain mean value
which we may now call the age of the universe. These ideas permit certain stars
to appear older than the age of the galaxy containing them because not all stars
collapse into one of the "black holes" at the same time. This would account
for the so called "age paradox" presently being considered by astrophysicists.
In the theory here the universe could be infinitely old but it continually recycles.
In possible confirmation of the idea that quasars eventually
produce new galaxies, an article appeared in the Tri-Valley Herald on January
7, 1999 discussing a local discovery, at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, of one
of the brightest starbursts ever seen. It was the first time a starburst was
found paired with a quasar according to Carlos De Breuck a Livermore astronomer.
A starburst is believed, so far, to be a fast growing firestorm of billions
of stars, a chain reaction of births of stars in conjunction with the collapse
of a gas cloud. At this writing this author has failed to find a follow up article
on this occurrence.
To fit into the recycling theory it makes sense that the cosmic
red shift is just due to absorption of light energy by the dark matter-vacuum
medium. This effect may be related to the Compton effect with photons and dark
matter weakly interacting with a transfer of energy to the dark matter-vacuum
medium. My work together with NASA's and others very recent (late 1997 and early
1998) discovery of an infrared background in addition to the microwave background
suggest that dark matter-vacuum medium is very energetic14. Conservation
of energy laws may imply that all light energy is eventually absorbed back into
the dark matter-vacuum medium.
The idea that the dark matter-vacuum medium absorbs energy
perhaps both photonic and kinetic under the proper conditions suggests other
consequences. Recently it has been found that the cosmic red shift accelerates
far away from us3. This might be explainable as a saturation effect.
Far within the universe the red shift is relatively constant because there can
be only so much equilibrium absorption into the dark matter-vacuum medium. At
the edges of the universe it is hypothesized, however, that the medium is not
saturated so it appears that the red shift increases as it adds to the energy
of the dark matter-vacuum medium. One perhaps can calculate the size of the
universe on the basis of this theory. The universe may be growing in size. One
might expect the red shift to appear infinite at the very edge of the universe
since all of the energy of photons would all eventually be absorbed into the
newly forming dark matter-vacuum medium.
UNIQUE WAVES AND WAYS OF CHANGING GRAVITY
W-waves seem to have very unique characteristics. For example
close to or within ordinary matter they appear to be low velocity waves which
permits them to form the various structures of plants as well as the universe8.
They seem to be very prone to forming standing waves with a reflected wave almost
automatic. This seems to be a characteristic shared by ordinary quantum waves13.
The apparent reflected wave required to produce standing waves may arise due
to the characteristics of the dark matter-vacuum medium. I hypothesize that
W-waves are quantum waves appearing on the macroscopic scale. If these quantum
like waves produce the gravity interactions observed in plants one might expect
related gravitational effects on a much larger scale perhaps in the formation
of star systems and the universe14.
If a plant's waves interact with gravity, as I found experimentally,
then they provide us clues on how to control gravity for man's purposes. If
gravity is a wave, a plant is able to manipulate the waves by reducing their
amplitudes within the plant. Some of my unpublished experiments seem to indicate
that trees even change the gravitational field, next to, and surrounding their
trunks. If plants interact with gravity with moving standing waves then perhaps
man can use a similar approach to modify gravity.
CURVATURE OF SPACE , INERTIA, AND MOMENTUM
Again intuitively curvature of space time has nothing to do
with inertia and momentum15. This together with incompatibility with
quantum theory should be a sufficient cause for one to look for another explanation
The moving standing wave model for gravity seems to provide
very simple explanations for inertia and momentum. Probably these moving standing
waves can move at any velocity up to the velocity of light. Presently the production
process for these moving standing waves is not understood but moving standing
waves is the hypothesis. If one looks out into the universe one sees matter
moving with all possible velocities (includes directions) less than the velocity
of light. The gravity producing standing waves radiating from these objects
are also hypothesized to be moving with every possible velocity. If an object
of mass m is accelerated in this wave ensemble the object must cross all these
different velocity waves which produce a resisting force (F=ma). If however
the object moves in sync (at constant velocity) with one of the velocities it
will be carried along with that velocity. This carrying along we call momentum.
An object accelerating near the velocity of light encounters the energy of the
vacuum with "substance" of the vacuum perhaps moving in every direction at the
velocity of light. In this velocity realm the resistance to change in velocity
of an object apparently becomes infinite or nearly so.
RECENT DISCOVERIES MAY SUGGEST THAT GENERAL RELATIVITY DOES
NOT EXPLAIN GRAVITY
Some very recent discoveries tend to support the ideas discussed in this paper:
CONCLUSIONS AND OBSERVATIONS
The curvature of space model for gravity is not compatible
with many features of nature. The moving standing wave model for gravity, however,
is compatible with quantum theory and other aspects of nature. The wave model
for gravity may permit a reasonable way to break gravity. The space curvature
theory seems to preclude any way to leave the earth or any other cosmic body
without the expenditure of huge amounts of energy. It appears possible that
one can find a way to shield or counteract the effects of gravity producing
waves, however. The extremely short wavelengths of these waves would cause problems
since they so easily penetrate all matter but ways may be found to overcome
the problem. Some recent experiments with a superconducting disk and other methods
which seemed to shield gravity may, if found true, tend to confirm the wave
theory 21,22 and also perhaps provide a start in the right direction
for shielding gravity.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS:
"added advance of the perihelion of the planet Mercury".
Out of a total advance of almost 6000" (of arc) per century, about 40" is unaccounted
for by planetary perturbations. The perihelion is the point in the path of the
planet that is nearest to the sun.
antimatter. For every type of matter particle there
is a corresponding antiparticle. Antimatter particles carry opposite charges
from the corresponding matter particles.
Compton effect. This involves a collision between a
photon and a particle such as an electron. The particle absorbs part of the
photon's energy and a lower energy photon results.
gamma ray bursters. These are powerful blasts of gamma-
and X-radiation that come from all parts of the sky but never from the same
general relativity. Einstein's theory of gravity where
gravitational forces are theorized to arise from space-time curvature. One might
visualize the curvature by laying a weight on a stretched rubber sheet.
gravitational lens. Gravitational lensing describes
how a massive object (such as a star or galaxy) changes the path of light from
a distant object.
gravitational waves. Gravitational waves are waves of
gravity. In Einstein's theory they are vibrations of space itself.
LIGO. One of the latest ongoing of several experimental
attempts to detect gravitational waves. The abbreviation means "laser interferometer
longitudinal and transverse waves. In longitudinal wave
motion the particles in the medium move parallel to the direction of propagation
of the wave (like sound waves). In transverse wave motion the particles of the
medium move perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave (like
waves in a string or rope).
Olber's paradox. If the universe is infinitely old and
uniformly filled with stars, then the night sky should shine brightly from all
directions. It is, however, dark at night.
pulsars. Pulsars, it is believed, are spinning neutron
stars that have jets of particles moving near or at the speed of light streaming
out of their two magnetic poles. These jets produce very powerful light beams.
The rotational and magnetic axes are misaligned. A beam of light sweeps around
as the pulsar rotates producing a pulsating light as observed here on earth.
quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the theory describing
the behavior of atoms, molecules, nuclei, and elementary particles which are
the building blocks of all matter.
quasars. Quasi stellar objects. Quasars are star like
objects that give off more energy than 100 galaxies combined. They are perhaps
the most distant objects yet detected in the universe. Many attempts have been
made to interpret their behavior.
standing waves. A superposition of incoming and reflected
waves (either longitudinal or transverse) often forming a regular series of
nodes (e.g low motion points) interspersed with antinodes (e.g. high motion
points). Perhaps the simplest way to produce transverse standing waves is with
a small rope attached to a door knob!
refraction of light (or other wave). A change in the
direction of travel of light (or other wave) when the medium changes.
|Copyright ©1996-2015 Orvin E. Wagner
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