Waves in Dark Matter
Orvin E. Wagner
Wagner Research Laboratory
Grants Pass, OR 97527
ABSTRACT. Dark matter apparently makes up near 90 % of the matter in the universe. Experiments suggest that the penetrating waves I found in plants have much to do with their organization and are waves in dark matter. Other than fields and special particles like neutrinos, the only entity that I am aware of, that is assumed to readily penetrate everything, is dark matter. According to my equations and experiments, dark matter waves behave something like sound waves. This result might go far in providing dark matter identification. My 1999 Physics Essays article shows that dark matter waves have much to do with organizing and stabilizing the solar system. In the present article I discuss an experiment where waves in dark matter apparently penetrate my local hill using a transmitter in the lab 311 m away. A salt filled wood sample in an aluminum shield in the laboratory is electrically pulsed and the signal is received with a portable receiving apparatus connected to a receiving tree on the opposite side of the hill. The matter penetration confirms again an application of dark matter waves. Previous similar experiments over shorter distances, confirm the same. The work reported here is just some of much that tends to confirm the presence of dark matter waves.
Key words: dark matter waves, waves in plants, 1/f noise, dark matter, matter penetration, solar cycle, dark matter identification
For the past 30 years or so I have been working with waves in plants. In the 1970's I often used the traditional methods of the early plant researchers (see my early published materials and APS presentations). Treated wood samples were used in my PhD dissertation published in the Journal of Physical Chemistry in 19701. My experiments suggested that treated wood had very special characteristics and they turned out to be useful for transmitters and receivers in recent work. Not until January of 1988 did I come to the conclusion that I was experimenting with penetrating waves in plants2, which I have identified as dark matter waves. In 1991 I wrote a small book (W-Waves and a Wave Universe) giving evidence for dark matter waves. In 1994 I submitted an article to Physics Essays entitled "Waves in Dark Matter"3 suggesting that the solar system is organized and stabilized by standing waves produced by dark matter oscillating in the sun (the solar cycle). Physicists in general are not aware of dark matter waves. They don't understand dark matter because they have not detected the dark matter they expected (see the many references, available on line, on the identification of dark matter). The early assumptions that dark matter interacts only with gravity and the assumptions about the nature of dark matter particles are not physics until they are experimentally proven. I have continued my work on waves in plants, as my publications suggest, up to the present4. In the spring of 2008 I found evidence that the plant waves penetrate everything as might be expected for dark matter waves. I found a way to produce the waves and transmit and receive them with my own equipment5. A patent has been applied for on the communication aspects. See reference 5 for receiver and transmitter preparation and operation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The methods and materials used in this article are mostly detailed in reference 5 and earlier, except for the "Plant Communication" section. As presented5, for transmitters and receivers I used trees with probes or ion filled wood detectors with steel probes in the ends. The detector wood was prepared by soaking properly split wood in concentrated, and heated salt solution5. The transmitters and receivers were enclosed in aluminum shields except for trees. Other equipment and methods discussed in the section on hill penetration are described as follows. Here I used an electric pulse (about 0.75 s long) to hit my shielded ion filled transmitter with about 272 v dc through a 25-watt current limiting incandescent light bulb. The person operating the transmitter in the lab used a cell phone to tell the over the hill operator when to turn on the receiver so that the signal would come through at the first of the graph. The salt filled transmitter was about 47.3 cm long and about 4 cm2 in cross section. Small diameter steel probes on a Douglas fir tree about 16 m apart provided the detector behind my local hill, which reached about 100 m above the equipment. A low pass filter was used to remove high frequency noise from the signal received from the tree. Next the signal was amplified by 1000 by an AD620 instrumentation amplifier. All the graphs (e.g. see Figures 1 & 2) were recorded on a lap top computer driven by a Lab-Quest Vernier meter preceded by the amplifier. All remote equipment was battery powered.
DARK MATTER WAVES IN PLANTS
In January 1988 I discovered that when I cut out short sections of a tree the distances between charge piles, that I had observed earlier on trees, telescoped into the short sections2,6. This made me realize that waves must be involved. Thus began a many year study of waves in plants4. I discovered that wavelengths increased with wave velocity from the horizontal to the vertical in plants4. I found that wave frequencies are isotropic around plants contrary to what I published in an article in 19997. Early I found that wounding one tree sent horizontal signals to its neighbors at a velocity later corrected from about 5 m/s to be near 25m/s5,8. Measurements that I made suggested that the internal plant waves produce relatively high voltages in pn junctions inserted in slits (indicating high energy content) in plants, if measured correctly9. In 2008 I found that I could reproduce the plant signals with my own prepared receivers and transmitters5. The highly conducting, material penetrating qualities of the waves discussed here suggest that they are not electromagnetic waves but dark matter waves.
According to my work and hypotheses dark matter is involved with nature in many ways rather than just interacting with gravity as previously assumed. My experiments indicate that plants, however, produce their own gravity like forces11,12 apparently related to dark matter waves. Frequencies of waves in plant structures, such as indicated by plant structure spacings, appear to repeat from plant to plant with dominant frequencies for particular species. Internodal spacings (spacings between plant structures such as leaves and branches) used as ½ wavelengths represent frequencies when the proper velocity is used to calculate a frequency. Wave velocities increase from horizontal to vertical or from the horizontal downward but most plants don't emphasize downward growth. The ratios of vertical to horizontal wave velocities in plants determine much of a plant's shape. For example the ratio of the vertical to horizontal wave velocity for Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is 3/1 while for apple (Malus domestica) it is 4/34.
The origin of these ratios and others are easily found from taking averages of 1/internodal spacings or cell lengths, and averaging these values for a particular species4. We use the idea that an internodal spacing represents a half wavelength and then we can write 1/λ with λ a wavelength. We sum on these reciprocals for a particular species. 1/λ can also be written f/v from the relation that velocity equals frequency multiplied by wavelength. If one takes averages of the f/v's for a particular plant one obtains, by dividing a vertical average by a horizontal average: ((∑fv/vv)/nv)/ ((∑fh/vh)/nh). The n's are the number of spacings in each case. Since the velocities are the same for every spacing at a particular angle to the horizontal and the frequencies, on average, are the same in every direction; we have vh/vv for the result. I report reciprocals of this value, vertical to horizontal velocity ratios4. Cell lengths (or fiber lengths) may be used similarly for some species (e.g. Incense cedar) due to more random internodal spacings. Note that the averages require a representative set of spacings or cell lengths. One can also obtain wave velocity ratios by direct measurement as one finds in my published tables of values. Also one can use ratios of needles per unit length, for some species, along vertical and horizontal branches (e.g. sugar pine) (see ref.4). Note that wave velocity magnitudes within plants are comparable to the external horizontal dark matter wave velocity (about 25 m/s on earth). According to my measurements the plant internal horizontal wave velocities are smaller than the external velocity while the vertical velocities may be larger (see Physics Essays 21, 151 (2008) Table 1.)
DARK MATTER WAVES AND DARK MATTER IDENTIFICATION
According to early theorist's assumptions dark matter only interacts with gravity and they assumed that they knew dark matter's other characteristics from particle theory. Recent experiments seem to disprove these ideas. According to my calculations the dark matter wave velocity in space is inversely proportional to the square root of the dark matter density (see my 1999 Physics Essays article). The waves apparently behave something like sound waves. The sound wave characteristic would likely be an important clue in dark matter identification.
Experimentalists are now using many kinds of detector substances in attempts to detect and identify dark matter particles because the original proposed theory doesn't seem to work. Experimentalists use Xenon with little success10. Others are using Sodium iodide crystals and may have found some directional effects, which are a function of the time of year. Some are using CaWO4 and Germanium point contact detectors with perhaps some success. See ref.13 for germanium point contact detectors as an example of possible particle detectors. No satisfactory detection and identification of dark matter particles has been shown yet, as of this writing. I suggest that experimentalists try the type of detector used in this article. Also because dark matter may interact with as much shielding as is being used, try less shielding.
DARK MATTER WAVES IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Dark matter waves seem to provide a system that stabilizes the solar system and other similar systems. The long sought reason that the solar system is stable apparently is due to dark matter standing waves from the sun. I assume that dark matter oscillating in the sun provides the solar cycle as well as solar system organizing dark matter waves. The waves leaving the sun speed up as they go away from the sun with a velocity inversely proportional to the square root of the density of dark matter. According to my calculations they leave the sun at 1.25 m/s 3. Note that the mean velocity of dark matter oscillating in the sun is apparently close to 1.0 m/s 3. The period of the solar cycle in seconds is equal to the radius of the sun in meters. Note that the density of dark matter on earth is apparently much greater than many have so far surmised14. My calculations provide a somewhat higher value5.
COMMUNICATION WITH DARK MATTER WAVES
I found that if I chopped or quickly wounded one tree the surrounding trees picked up signals8. The velocity between trees was first measured to be about 4.9 m/s in 1988, as measured by my strip chart recorder. In 2008 I found that I had left in the separation between the strip chart recorder pens in the direction of travel in the 1988 calculations. If I subtracted that distance (representing time) in my calculations the resulting velocities were near 25 m/s as I found in my 2008 experiments5. Others have hypothesized that pheromones notify surrounding plants that insects have attacked since surrounding plants produce resistant substances15. This may be true but my experiments suggest much faster and more distant communication. In recent work, using shielded ion filled detectors, not only can they be used for detecting and sending signals to similar detectors, but also they send signals to surrounding trees. Analyzing the signals provides data for finding the distances between sending and receiving trees. Signals from detectors (shielded and in pure darkness) also indicate the sun being covered and uncovered by clouds as well as indicating sunrise and sunset and so on (much unpublished).
I am able to pulse an ion filled wood sample with a nine-volt battery. If the time of year, and other conditions are correct, so that noise doesn't bury my signal, I can send a detectable signal to another nearby salt filled sample or to a tree5. So far trees have been the most sensitive detectors. In early communication work it appeared that the strength of a signal from a receiving tree is proportional to the square root of the separation of the probes on the tree. This suggests it might be difficult to obtain strong signals from short salt filled samples. Accordingly I have only sent signals short distances using only salt filled sample receivers and transmitters5.
However I have been able send a signal through about 100 m. of air plus about 200 m of rock and soil with my usual short salt filled transmitter, but I used a tree for a receiver (refer to Materials and Methods). See Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 1. April 6, 2009 near noon. Graph of over the hill response to about a 0.75 sec hit to a salt filled sample in the lab. The voltage applied to the sample was close to 272v dc through a 25-watt incandescent light bulb to limit the current. Measuring near, as possible, to the center of the flat portion, on the bottom of the curve, gives about 12.5 s from the beginning. Using a distance between transmitter and receiver of 311 m gives a velocity of 24.88 m/s as the maximum amplitude velocity. The maximum error arises from attempting to locate the negative maximum of the curve.
Figure 2 April 8, 2009 near noon. The downward peak was maximum again at near 12 s, The peak has about the same width as in Figure 1 except the time scale is different and the amplifier reference is set differently so that the graph is below zero voltage. The voltage change maximum here is about twice that of figure 1. The attempt to find the time location of the maximum negative value provided about 12s. This gives approximately a 25.9 m/s velocity using 311 m as the transmitter and receiver separation.
The through the hill experiments provided eight experiments showing a peak above the noise at near 12 seconds indicating a maximum amplitude signal at near 25 m/s. There always appeared to be a distribution of velocities for the through the hill experiments. I don't understand the spread, especially the apparent higher velocities indicated. The higher velocities don't make sense, with the present knowledge, due to the penetration of thick matter. There was a slight delay caused by the cell phone communication during the experiment. Perhaps dark matter particles are represented by particles having different characteristics. Due to noise, and depending on the time of year, there is often a problem in reading the data, but the timing is correct for the peak at about 12 seconds indicating a velocity of about 25 m/s at maximum signal amplitude. .
Fig. 3. Jan. 6, 2012. Here I hit the transmitting sample with close to 70 volts.. The vertical scale is 0.05 volts per division and the horizontal scale 0.5 s per division. The transmitter was located straight East 307 m from the tree receiver on the West side of the hill. I neglect the air distance (approx. 61 m) since the air velocity for this frequency was expected to be large.
I have used the described hill for an electromagnetic shield over the years. In Figure 3 you see a signal that did not start coming through for more than three seconds. In this case I installed a wire cord over the hill to bring back the response signal from a tree. 6 insulated wires in the ten-wire cord were used for ground and the other 4 for signal. The cord was much longer than 307 meters. The signal arrived from the transmitter from about 307 m away from the tree receiver after apparently going through about 246 m of rock and dirt. The cord brought the return signal back nearly instantaneously so the signal traveled about 77 m/s going through the hill (from the delay time on Fig.3) and apparently much faster through about 61 m of air so the thickness of air is neglected. My previous data shows an apparent possible range of velocities for through the hill velocities (see Figures 1 and 2 for April 2009 data). The relatively long delay in Figure 3 indicates the signal is not electromagnetic but apparently the solid matter has a large effect by lowering the high dominant velocity from what I lately found between samples in air for the given time of year. There is some question as to where the signal enters the hill because the hill slopes upward to about 100 m above the transmitter location. Also no low pass filter was used.
CONCLUSIONS AND OBSERVATIONS
If dark matter waves exist, major changes are likely required in early universe theory. They also may provide pervading human communication. Note that the salt filled detectors, that are described here, are quite different than the detectors that have been used by others so far in attempts to detect and identify dark matter particles10,13. The detectors described here might be useful for this application. Note that gravity like forces in plants, the wave energy density in plants, and the idea of dark matter producing 1/f noise all apparently contribute to the idea of local dark matter waves4,5,11,12. I have tried everything I could imagine to understand waves in plants, making many thousands of different measurements. My dark matter hypotheses come from my extensive study of what is available about dark matter and my experiments. Some physicists are looking for explanations, other than dark matter, for the "missing mass" problem. The kind of data I found appears to be a characteristic of an all-pervading dark matter prone to forming waves. My work may suggest that dark matter is tied in with all life. Dark matter waves may explain a lot of physics that has not been well understood before. For example:
(1) One of the important long-term questions answered is an explanation of the solar cycle. Dark matter oscillating in the sun may provide a good explanation with it oscillating in the sun with velocities near 1 m/s.
(2) The stability and organization of the solar system
(3) Some variable star characteristics
(4) Rings of the gaseous planets (e.g. see the author's online article "Dark matter waves and planetary rings).
(5) Sound waves in the early universe may have not been always ordinary sound.
(6) Dark energy may be due to a combination of expansive forces.
Plants with high velocity ratios, such as pine and fir have a tendency to turn up at the ends of the branches indicating an additional acceleration not as apparent in lower velocity ratio plants. A large vertical to horizontal wave velocity ratio such as 3/1 in Ponderosa pine may indicate acceleration upward so branches correct their orientation by bending upward on the ends. Branches of less sensitive species (low wave velocity ratios) apparently are supported by smaller forces. Perhaps another example of a force produced by a wave effect is the force returning a bent down branch to its previous position (reaction wood), reported by plant physiologists16. Apparent accelerations remind me of dark energy accelerations. Dark matter effects and dark energy effects on earth might be possible and plants might be where to look to understand them. Note that many biological clocks don't change time when they are removed to locations like deep underground in salt mines or moved to the South Pole, for example16. These latter effects appear to also indicate all pervading waves.
Dark matter detection using solvated ions instead of previous detectors as in the South Dakota mine10 may be worth testing. This type of detector may characterize dark matter much better as to particle size and identity. In the over the hill graphs, the apparent velocity spread might be due to different kinds of particles present in dark matter. The observations may indicate that dark matter interacts more with complex ions rather than simpler atoms and molecules. Note 1/f noise in my previous Physics Essays article5 and its directionality would seem to indicate that dark matter with directionality effects is associated with gravity. Maybe gravity is not all-important in producing vertical growth in plants.
Many have thought that dark matter is very elusive, and not very dense, but apparently all planets and stars are surrounded and penetrated by dark matter. See ref.5 for a density of dark matter equation for earth and my own calculations using dark mater wave velocities. If dark matter interacts with gravity in special ways, as experiments seem to indicate, this might explain the gravity apparently produced by plants and might give us a key to producing our own gravity. In plants gravity like forces seem to be produced both vertically and horizontally11,12.
Someone suggested that the through the hill signals were electromagnetic. I don't believe this makes sense. Most of the sent signal arrived too slowly for that explanation. I have used the hill as a shield in experiments to get away from 60 Hz signals. These are extremely long wavelength electromagnetic signals. The hill appears to be a very good shield from the strong signals produced by an extensive network of 60 Hz lines East of the hill. These lines were near the location of my aluminum shielded, extremely low power transmitter in the laboratory. My signal would also have an extremely long wavelength if it were electromagnetic.
1.O.E. Wagner and W.E. Deeds, J. Phys. Chem.74, 288(1970).
2. O.E. Wagner, Northwest Science. 62, 263(1988).
3.O.E. Wagner, Physics Essays 12, 3 (1999).
4.O.E. Wagner, Physics Essays. 21,151 (2008).
5.O.E. Wagner, Physics Essays 23, 44 (2010).
6. O.E. Wagner, Northwest Science 64, 28 (1990).
7. O.E. Wagner, Proceedings of space technology international forum (American Institute of Physics).368 (2000).
8. O.E. Wagner, Northwest Science. 63,119 (1989).
9. O.E. Wagner, Physiol. Chem. Physics and Med. NMR. 25, 49 (1993).
10. E.Aprile, arXiv:1005.0380v2 (2010)
11. O.E. Wagner, Physiol. Chem . Phys. & Med. NMR. 24, 29(1993).
12. O.E. Wagner, Physiol. Chem. Phys. & Med. NMR 27, 31 (1995).
13.C.E. Aalseth, arXiv: 1002.4703v2 (astro-ph.CO).
14. J.M. Frere, F.S. Ling and G. Vertongen, Phys. Rev. D 77, 083005 (2008).
15.D.F. Rhodes, Chemically Mediated Interactions Between Plants and Other Organisms, (Plenum Publishing Corp., New York 1985) pp.195-218.
16. F.B. Salisbury and C. Ross, Plant Physiology, (Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, CA, 1985) pp. 490-492, 652.
GENERAL COMMENT ON MUCH OF MY LATER WORK
I have often failed to mention that I had a low pass filter in most of my experimental circuits. For example in the above article apparently the low pass filter made the graphs emphasize the lower frequencies. Apparently there is a wide range of frequencies available, but they don't show equally because of the limitations of the circuitry. For example I used about six different low pass filters on May 30, 2012. Each different low pass filter indicated one frequency passing between a wood transmitter and receiver. This frequency was close to the frequency rating of the low pass filter used. Perhaps the velocity is proportional to a possible quantized frequency. In the above article the highest velocity recorded at the beginning of each curve is relatively large but limited by the human response time in the telephone call. The beginning signal strength is small probably much of which is due to the low pass filter present. In the article, just after the above article on the website, apparently the low frequency response was due to the use of a low frequency response strip chart recorder for recording the back and forth signal transmission. An important additional observation is that treated and untreated wood transmitters require that the signal to be transmitted is applied along the grain of the wood. The received signal must be also be retrieved from along the grain of the receiver.
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