Waves in Dark Matter
The following article, describing some of the
possible consequences of the wave theory appeared in Frontier Perspectives
 6(1):41-47 (published by The Center for Frontier Science at Temple University).
The article was modified slightly for this presentation. This article only introduces
the subject. For much more, including experiments on how nature controls gravity
and utilizes free energy, see the book Waves
in Dark Matter on the Main
Page. This article posted with permission from Frontier Perspectives.
SUMMARY AND ORIENTATION
During the past nine years I have found and analyzed
waves (W- waves) that seem to pervade everything. These waves seem to interact
with ordinary matter to control charge location, matter displacement, life organization,
and provide communication.
The variable velocities found for these waves
may provide better and more versatile means of communication throughout the
universe. These waves may travel many times faster than light under the proper
conditions since they appear to be non- electromagnetic. They may provide communication
with the most remote locations within reasonable times. I hypothesize that these
waves provide a dominant means of communication for the universe and thus, so
far, we have been unable to detect other than human communications. I have detected
organized signals coming from W-wave detectors that may have originated from
deep space. These waves might also provide for action at a distance under the
The formation and stability of the solar system
and the macroscopic structure of the universe seem to be provided by these waves.
Measurement of gravity cancellation affects in plants as well as other interactions
with gravity suggest the possibility of gravity control with the proper application
of these waves.
These waves also seem to provide a template or
pattern for the development of all life and thus life developed in spite of
the fundamental second law of thermodynamics. The second law is a physical law
that states that a system left to itself tends toward disorganization. I present
some of my 1996 data that shows that plant structures tend to grow at certain
preferred angles to the gravitational field providing another example of how
these waves work.
These versatile waves may explain many of the
controversial anomalous phenomena found on earth such as dowsing, mental telepathy,
acupuncture, person to person healing, communication between plants and between
plants and humans, and other related phenomena. The work reported here suggests
to me that these phenomena may be feasible as W-wave phenomena.
REVIEW OF PREVIOUS WORK
In 1988 I discovered waves in plants. I called
them W-waves because they were first observed in live wood1. These
waves travel throughout plants. I also found these waves were present in other
materials such as salt solution filled pourous materials and likely all matter
everywhere since I have detected them everywhere I have searched. I found that
W-waves also travel between plants and facilitate plant communication2.
If I wounded one plant I found an almost immediate response in nearby plants.
Preliminary data even suggests communication between salt solution filled wood
The smallest velocities for the waves carrying
the information seem to be close to 480 cm/s between plants and 96 cm/s within
plant tissue2. In 1994 I discovered that larger W-wave velocities
exist in plants which are integral multiples of 96 cm/s (velocity switching).
Some of this latter work is published in (1996) Physiological Chemistry and
Over the past nine years I measured many thousands
of plant internodal spacings (spacings between leaves and branches) and took
distributions. The distributions demonstrated that plant spacings are discrete
(quantized) with most spacings repeating from plant species to plant species
indicating wave behavior. The evidence suggests that many standing W-wave frequencies
with their special characteristics determine plant structure (see Figure 1 and
elementary physics texts for information on standing waves). There are only
certain discrete frequencies or modes available and plants grow accordingly.
I compared these affects to sound standing waves placing dust piles at nodes
in a dust filled resonating sound tube (Kundt's tube)4. W-waves similarly
seem to move matter (including charge) to standing wave nodes if the matter
is free to move.
In 1993 I studied plant internodal spacings in
the vicinity of an electric power substation. I found that certain electric
field amplitudes had large affects on the distributions of plant spacings. The
spread of frequencies (standard deviations) was reduced considerably in several
cases. I also studied the production of W-wave frequency signals in the presence
of electromagnetic sources in the laboratory. I found, using semiconductor detectors,
that certain characteristic W-wave frequencies are produced which are also commonly
found in the analysis of plant spacings.
It appears that certain electromagnetic fields
alter the W-wave amplitudes of certain discrete W-wave modes that are available
to plants in the W-wave medium. Discrete modes having higher amplitudes apparently
cause plants to grow with an altered set of permitted discrete spacings5.
Note that the excited modes are much different than the EM frequencies exciting
them. The data here suggest that energy is absorbed from electromagnetic fields
by the W-wave medium5.
Using small accelerometers in small holes in vertical tree trunks I found a large reduction in the gravitational field when sap was flowing. I also hung weights in holes in slightly leaning trees with weight loss indicated during sap flow periods6,7. These affects indicate that forces are present that cancel gravity to facilitate sap flow. These forces may be reproducible outside of plants. Large voltages in insulated diodes placed in sap conducting tree tissue indicate a large W-wave intensity in trees8.
In 1990 I proposed that the sunspot cycle is
due to the oscillation of slow moving waves in the sun9. If the waves
traverse the suns radius in 11 years they are traveling at about 1 m/s. This
velocity is close to the velocity that I observed for W-waves traveling through
salt solution filled wood samples as well as to the velocity of W-waves in live
plants. I later identify the waves here as the same species of waves as the
waves operating plants.
The planets surrounding the sun are placed such
that their distances from the sun is almost doubled for each succeeding planet.
The same is true for the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. This looks like the
work of a wave phenomenon where the wave velocity increases exponentially as
it travels away from the sun or planets due to a decreasing density of the wave
medium. The waves would be very slow moving as they started out from the sun
and then speed up as they moved outward.
I hypothesize that the sun (or planets) is oscillating
with a period close to that of the sunspot cycle (different for the planets)
and producing its own standing wave pattern. This pattern placed most of the
planets because matter collected at the wave nodes. The sunspot cycle period
appears to vary because sunspots appear much by chance but likely there is an
underlying very regular oscillation5,9.
An equation that does a good job in locating
the planets (or satellites of Jupiter and Saturn) is:
where r is the planets distance from the sun,
r0 is close to the sun's present radius (or Jupiter or Saturn's radius
when their satellites were placed) and N is an integer. The velocity equation
for the proposed waves would be:
where vN is the wave velocity at a particular planet's location v0 is a constant. These equations can be derived from assuming that the wave medium density drops off as about 1/r2 as one moves radially away from the sun. The 1/r2 density dependence is also found for dark matter (to be discussed later) halos around galaxies10. The waves here, like plant waves, are longitudinal waves like sound waves5.
I call my view of the universe "wave cosmology".
This viewpoint solves many problems. For example the solar system is stable
because a standing wave pattern produced by the sun's oscillation is always
in place with a tendency to hold ordinary matter (like the planets) at nodes.
Planetary rings are stable because they result from special matter confining
standing waves. These special standing waves arise because of planet layering
discontinuities which reflect w-waves and produce added planetary oscillation
frequencies. Planetary ring structure thus provides information about internal
W-wave standing wave affects show on earth in
different places besides plants and solution filled porous materials. As stated
earlier W-waves seem to be both matter and charge displacing waves. W-waves
seem to be standing wave prone because they reflect back on themselves easily.
I found (an ongoing experiment) naturally occurring nodes in flotage in troughs
half filled with water lying along an East and West line. The moving flotage
was protected from atmospheric affects. For flotage I use styrofoam particles
and wood sawdust soaked in hot paraffin. When floating on the water surface
these particles seem to collect more at specific locations due to the standing
waves present apparently everywhere.
I found equally spaced locations, where flotage
tended to collect more, were produced artificially in flotage in a trough by
oscillating vacuum tubes at one end of the trough (9 cm node spacing in one
case using a 400 khz oscillator) . I attribute the latter affects to electromagnetic
fields exciting slow moving wave modes in the W-wave medium as discussed earlier.
Note that a 9 cm node spacing is a half wavelength for 26.7 Hz traveling at
480 cm/s in air. 26.7 Hz is a common plant frequency derived from plant internodal
A good explanation for the results from the so
called fifth force experiments of physicists of the 1980's is that the forces
observed are forces varying sinusoidally due to large W-wave standing wave patterns11.
The observed forces confused the researchers because they tried to fit the behavior
into their fifth force hypothesis so most of the work was discontinued because
the data didn't make sense with their hypothesis. The so called corrections
to gravity seemed to vary sinusoidally as would be expected with forces produced
by standing waves5. Both attractive and repulsive and vertical and
horizontal forces were observed but none of those experimenting with the so
called fifth force attempted to locate the nodal points as would have been done
if the experiments had been carried out on the basis of the W-wave hypothesis.
W-waves' subtle affects may be manifest in places
one would not suspect. As already stated W-waves tend to deposit matter at different
locations because there is a W-wave standing wave pattern present. Some of the
supposedly air deposited unexplained periodic formations on sand dunes may be
due to resonating W- waves rather than due purely to air affects. Even some
of the repeating patterns observed in clouds may be due to W-wave standing wave
W-WAVES AND THE DARK MATTER MEDIUM
It has been observed that plants grow anywhere
including anywhere on and within the earth. The waves that run plants seem to
come from outside the plants because they appear to arise from electromagnetic
excitation affects, the sun, and the planets5. This suggests that
plant waves must penetrate the earth if plants grow inside. I found the same
W-wave frequencies and amplitudes deep underground in plants that I measured
on the surface of the earth2.
The hypothesized dark matter seems to penetrate
everything in the universe12. W-waves apparently travel through dark
matter alone in the vacuum of the solar system and space and through a combination
of dark matter and ordinary matter. The most important medium to W-waves appears
to be dark matter. Thus W- waves appear to be waves traveling in dark matter
that penetrates ordinary matter. In the dark matter-filled ordinary matter the
density of the ordinary matter appears to be important to the W- wave velocity
(see all the Wagner references). This suggests an interaction between ordinary
matter and dark matter. I have already mentioned that the oscillations of W-waves
in plant material seems to organize charge so that we see periodicity in the
organization of charge in plants1. Charge is the only thing other
than dark matter that is relatively free to move through ordinary matter.
W-waves in plants, in the sun, and the waves
placing the planets, satellites of planets, or the waves stabilizing planetary
rings likely are of the same species. No other slow moving matter penetrating
waves are known. The observed slow moving waves on earth and around the sun
must have a medium. The vacuum around the sun is apparently filled with dark
matter which makes up more than 90% of our universe12. This is the
only possible known vacuum medium for the waves that I describe. Elsewhere combinations
of dark matter and ordinary matter are the media.
If dark matter waves cancel gravity in plants
as I found6,7 then one can only estimate the total influence that
dark matter had on the early placement of matter in the solar system. The plant
work indicates that dark matter waves interact strongly with gravity in ways
that make dark matter very unique in its interactions with ordinary matter6,7.
Dark matter with its waves likely had a very large previously unrecognized influence
on the formation of our solar system and other similar systems throughout our
universe because of interactions with ordinary matter and the gravitational
field. The wave cosmology theory and data confirms this strong influence.
The velocity of W-waves in ordinary matter (with
dark matter present) seems to be inversely proportional to the square root of
the density of the medium if one leaves out velocity switching discussed earlier.
Compare this with the density dependence for the speed of sound in solids (see
elementary physics texts). Taking into account velocity switching3,
I speculate that much higher velocities than what I have observed so far are
likely in plants and elsewhere.
In the W-wave theory I propose that dark matter
absorbs both electromagnetic and kinetic energy under the proper circumstances
(note that I have observed that electromagnetic energy excites W- wave modes
requiring energy)5. Because dark matter absorbs energy the sun's
interior may be cooled by W-waves carrying away energy. The neutrino flux could
thus be reduced to about 1/3 of its predicted value in agreement with actual
measurements12. Dark matter may absorb electromagnetic energy to
produce the red shift in space and dense dark matter may absorb kinetic energy
from bodies orbiting pulsars, for example.
I characterize dark matter more than anyone else
so far. I think I have considerable evidence for my hypotheses, however (all
the Wagner references). Thus dark matter is apparently made up of electrically
neutral small particles with a high numerical density able to move rather freely
through the comparatively large open spaces in ordinary matter (baryonic matter)12.
Since dark matter waves (W-waves) are apparently able to move charge1
we can estimate that its particles are of the order of the same size as electrons
or maybe smaller. Compare this with the case of air molecules in the Kundt's
tube sound experiment; air molecules are much smaller than the dust particles
being displaced to node locations1 (see elementary physics texts).
The dark matter particles are slow moving particles since waves in them are
slow moving in a dense medium (see elementary physics texts on waves).
When the numerical density of dark matter particles
becomes small W-waves can speed up because of a larger mean free path between
particles. I hypothesize that if the density is small enough without ordinary
matter present, since the medium particles are apparently non-electromagnetic
and may not obey the special relativity rules, W-waves can speed up to velocities
many times the speed of light. The basis for this statement is that I hypothesize
a requirement for immediate communication with all parts of the universe and
that the universe is organized periodically over very long distances13.
W-waves appear to be reflected by changes in
density of the media through which they travel, by plant boundaries and other
boundaries, and by just ordinary matter with no obvious boundaries as when their
modes have been excited by electromagnetic waves as mentioned earlier.
I have observed organized signals, using a W-wave
detector, perhaps coming from deep space intelligence. The received signal,
in one case, appeared to be a series of distributions5. W-waves may
be more suited than EM waves for space communications because of possible very
high variable velocities, noise immunity, and matter penetration.
In the following I report some interesting results
from my work in the summer of 1996 that show that plant structures tend to grow
at certain specific angles to the gravitational field. This data supplements
the already large evidence that I have gathered that plants are quantized and
operated by W-waves.
QUANTIZED PLANT ANGLES
For the past several years I have been intrigued
by small diameter tree branches that seem to grow out from certain trees at
fixed angles to the horizontal. It appears that the plants have been correcting
the angle of growth so that a branch remains straight otherwise it would have
drooped. I have seen branches that seem to maintain a specific angle for several
meters with the initial branch diameter no more than 3 centimeters or so. This
last summer I decided to check the growth angles of hundreds of these branches
where the branch appeared to maintain a specific angle for more than half a
Listed below is a briefing on the results of
angle measurements taken from small red alders (Alnus rubra). I also
took confirming data from big leaf maples (Acer macrophylla), and Douglas
firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and some other species to be published elsewhere.
Measurements were taken within a two mile radius
of the laboratory. I chose branches where the initial diameter varied from a
centimeter to two centimeters or I chose sections of branches where part of
the branch maintained a specific angle for a half meter or more. I also measured
some tree trunk angles on small red alders (three centimeters in diameter at
the largest) where the leaning trunk appeared to grow straight for a meter or
more. I used a simple #36 Polycast protractor to measure the angles for Figure
2 (I also used a digital readout level as a check). This instrument had a base
10.7 cm long so I had to limit my measurements to spacings between secondary
branches and leaves that were longer than 10.7 cm. The length of the level base
and the accessibility of branches and trunks limited what angles I could measure.
I could only measure angles where I did not need to disturb the branch or trunk
that I was measuring.
In measuring I was careful not to remove leaves
or secondary branches that would change the weight of the branch or trunk and
thus change the angle. I moved the measuring device base around the branch or
trunk to be able to read the minimum angle that the branch or trunk made with
the horizontal. Again extreme care was taken not to move the portion of the
branch or trunk whose angle was being taken so with the small diameter branches
or trunks one could not touch the object being measured without causing some
error. Care was taken to take the measurements without wind. This was usually
early in the morning.
The results for red alder are shown in Figure
2. Most of the measured angles seem to lie on integral multiples of 5 degrees.
89 % of the 337 red alder measurements (Figure 2) were within 1 degree of integral
multiples of 5 degrees.
FIGURE 2. The distribution of 337 slope angles, measured with respect to the horizontal, taken from branches and a few leaning trunks of red alder. The distribution indicates that the measured angles are mostly within 1 degree of integral multiples of five degrees (88%).
The results seem to suggest that branches and
trunks tend to grow at specific quantized angles to the horizontal. Integral
multiples of five degrees seem to be the preferred angles of growth in all measurements
made. Only in certain cases was I able to measure angles but these data are
sufficient for a sampling to show the near five degree angle quantization.
In my previous work3 I reported different
velocities for vertically and horizontally traveling W-waves in plants. Perhaps
every angle multiple with reference to the gravitational field has its specific
W-wave velocity. Here we are considering an interaction of W-waves with the
gravitational field. Previously I mentioned that W-waves interact with electric
fields. Thus we have found a way to tie gravitational fields with electric fields.
Perhaps W-waves complete the grand unification of the fields or maybe we should
say dark matter completes grand unification.
Also we have a tie in with quantum mechanics.
Just as quantum mechanics determines the structure of matter, W-wave mechanics
seems to determine the structure of plants and likely all life. From the data
so far, W-waves seem to provide a rudimentary pattern for plant development
since spacings, growth angles, and other quantities are quantized (see all the
Wagner references). Probably life development, in general, does not violate
the second law of thermodynamics. The evidence suggests that it develops according
to a predetermined general pattern provided by the laws of W-wave behavior which
I call W-wave mechanics.
(1) Wagner, O.E. 1988. Wave behavior in plant tissue. Northwest Science 62:263-270.
(2) Wagner, O.E. 1989. W-waves and plant communication. Northwest Science 63:119-128.
(3) Wagner, O.E. 1996. Anisotropy of wave velocities in plants: gravitropism. Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR 28:173-196.
(4) Wagner, O.E. 1990. W-waves and plant spacings. Northwest Science 64:28-38.
(5) Wagner, O.E. 1995. Waves in Dark Matter Rogue River: Wagner Physics Publishing. Chapters 7,8,9,10 and appendix C. (book available from publisher (1-541-582-3335 or firstname.lastname@example.org or see the Wagner Research Laboratory web page))
(6) Wagner, O.E. 1995. Acceleration changes within living trees. Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR 27:32-44.
(7) Wagner, O.E. 1992. Acceleration changes within plants. Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR 24:29-33.
(8) Wagner, O.E. 1993. Wave energy density in plants. Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR 25:49-54.
(9) Wagner, O.E. 1991. W-Waves and A Wave Universe. Rogue River: Wagner Physics Publishing. Chapter 5.
(10) Tremaine, S. 1992. The dynamical evidence for dark matter. Physics Today 45:28-36.
(11) Schwarzschild, B. 1988. From mine shafts to cliffs-- the 'Fifth Force' remains elusive. Physics Today 41:21-24.
1 (12) Krause, L.M. 1989. The Fifth Essence. The Search for Dark Matter in the Universe. New York: Basic Books Inc. pp. 61-70, 290, 291.
(13) Broadhurst, T.J., R.S. Ellis, D.C. Koo,, and A.S. Szalay. 1990. Large-scale distribution of the galaxies at the galactic poles. Nature 343:726-728.
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